Monday, November 12, 2007

Training Institutions

Training Institutions

Pakistan Navy has an academy of its own called the Pakistan Naval Academy (also known as PNS RAHBAR), it is the home of initial training of officers of Pakistan Navy. The academy also has provided basic training to the officers of Allied Navies. The Chief of Naval Staff of Qatar Emiri Navy and many high ranking officers of Royal Saudi Navy as well as other navies in the Gulf were graduates of the PNA. The academy is a full fledged training institution catering to the needs to Pakistani junior Naval officers. The Navy also has its own navy war college called the Pakistan Navy War College [3] specializing in imparting Naval Warfare techniques to officers of the Pakistan marine forces.

Other worthwhile training institutions are:

PNS Bahadur: conducts specialist courses.

PNS Himalaya: for basic training of sailors.

PNS Karsaz: for technical training of sailors.

PNS Jauhar: for technical training of officers.

PNS Jauhar has been absorbed by the National University of Sciences and Technology as Pakistan Navy Engineering College, where officers and civilian students are offered degrees in Electrical, Mechanical and Electronics Engineering.

Special Forces

Main article: Special Services Group Navy

Special Service Group Navy (SSGN) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Navy. It is an elite special operations force similar to the Royal Navy's Special Boat Service and United States Navy SEALS. Official numbers place the strength between 700 to 1,000, in 1 Company; however the actual strength is classified.

The fleet

PNS Shahjahan & PNS Tippu Sultan with USS Rueben James during Exercise Inspired Siren in 2002.
PNS Shahjahan & PNS Tippu Sultan with USS Rueben James during Exercise Inspired Siren in 2002.
PNS Shahjahan
PNS Shahjahan

Classification of ships with respect to their classes[7][8][9] [10]

  • 6 Ex-UK Type 21 Frigates
    • F181 Tariq 1975/93 Ex-Ambuscade
    • F182 Babur 1974/93 Ex-Amazon
    • F183 Khaibar 1976/94 Ex-Arrow
    • F184 Badr 1977/94 Ex-Alacrity
    • F185 Shah Jehan 1977/94 Ex-Active
    • F186 Tippu Sultan 1978/94 Ex-Onslow
  • 3 French Eridan Class Mine Hunter vessels
    • M166 Munsif 1989/95 Ex-Sagittaire
    • M167 Muhafiz 1996
    • M168 Mahmood 1997
  • 4+ Jalalat Class Missile Boats
    • P1023 Jurrat 2006
    • P1028 Quwwat 2006
    • P1022 Jalalat 1997
    • P1024 Shujaat 1999
    • P1029 ? ?
    • P1030 ? ?
  • ? Sabqat (Huangfeng) Class Missile Boats - (Possibly Inactive)
    • P1025 Azmat 1984
    • P1026 Deshat 1984
    • P1027 Himmat 1984
  • ? Hegu Class Missile Boats - (Possibly Inactive)
    • P1021 Haibat 1981
  • 1 Larkana Class Patrol GunBoat
    • P157 Larkana 1994
  • 2 Shanghai II Class Patrol GunBoats
    • P145 Pishin 1972
    • P149 Bahawalpur 1976
  • 1 Town Class Patrol GunBoat - (Possibly Inactive)
    • P140 Rajshahi 1966
  • 2 MRTP 15 Fast Patrol Boats
    • P01 ? 2004
    • P02 ? 2004
  • 1 Fuqing Class AOR
    • A47 Nasr 1987
  • 1 Poolster Class AOR
    • A20 Moawin 1964/94 Ex-Poolster
  • 2 Coastal Tankers
    • A49 Gwadar 1984
    • A21 Kalmat 1991
  • 4 Griffon Ambhibious Assault Ships
  • 1 Hydrographic Survey Vessel, SV Behr Paima
    • -- Behr Paima 1982
  • 1 Ex-UK Leander Class Training vessel[11]
    • F262 Zulfiquar 1972/88 Ex-Apollo


Submarines

A total of 5 active diesel electric submarines plus 3 midget submarines, MG110 are in the Naval inventory.[12] These include:

Daphne class submarine Ghazi (S-134)
Daphne class submarine Ghazi (S-134)
  • 3 Agosta-90B class (PNS/M Khalid, PNS/M Saad & PNS/M Hamza)
  • 2 Agosta 70 class (PNS/M Hashmat & PNS/M Hurmat)
  • 4 (Decommissioned) Daphne class (PNS/M Hangor, PNS/M Ghazi 2, PNS/M Mangro & PNS/M Shushuk)

All of the Pakistani SSKs have been equipped with AshMs which can be fired while submerged. The 3 Khalid class boats are capable of firing Exocet AshM, while the older Agostas and Daphnes have been equipped with US Harpoon AshMs. PNS/M Hamza (third Agosta-90B) is equipped with the MESMA Air Independent Propulsion system, PNS/M Khalid and PNS/M Saad will be upgraded with the same MESMA AIP system in the near future. The Pakistan Navy also plans to integrate the Boeing Harpoon Block II on to its Agosta-90Bs; and currently the Agosta-90Bs are capable of firing Blackshark torpedoes.

In mid-2006 the Pakistan Navy announced its requirement of three new SSK attack submarines to replace the two Agosta-70 submarines and rebuild its fleet - after retiring the 4 Daphne Class. French naval firm DCN offered its latest export design - the Marlin SSK - which is based off the Scorpene SSK, but also uses technology from the Barracuda nuclear attack submarine. The German firm HDW offered the U-214 SSK. The News, a Pakistani newspaper, has reported that PN officials have entered into negotiations with Germany for the possible acquisition of U-214 submarines. As of April 2007 the PN announced that it will procure four new submarines to replace the decommissioned Daphne Class; the TKMS U214 and DCN Marlin as well as Scorpene are the main contenders.

Pakistan is also seeking to enhance its strategic strike capability by developing naval variants of the Babur land attack cruise missile (LACM). The Babur LACM has a range of 700 km and is capable of using both conventional and nuclear warheads. Future developments of LACM include capability of being launched from submarines, surface combatants and aircraft.

Frigates

PNS Badr (F184) steams along side USS Tarawa (LHA-1) in November of 2005
PNS Badr (F184) steams along side USS Tarawa (LHA-1) in November of 2005

The Navy's six frigates include six ex-British Amazon class (PNS Babur) ships. These are expected to retire between 2010 and 2020.

In 2005 Pakistan ordered four F-22P light frigates from China in a deal worth $600mn. The first is expected to be commissioned 2009[4] and the remainder by 2013. One of the F-22Ps will be built in the Karachi Shipyard. The F-22P is an improved version of the Type 053H3 Jiangwei II class light frigate, it has a displacement of at least 2500 tons. The first F-22P will be called PNS Zulfiqar, and thus become the Zulfiqar Class.

According to Janes the Pakistan Navy is expected to place a formal request to the U.S for six Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates to augment its surface fleet. These may replace the Type-21s and act as stop-gaps until new-built frigates and corvettes are commissioned. The weapons and systems on the PN FFG-7 have not yet been disclosed, but they could include the Mk 41 Vertical Launch System for the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) as well as Mk 32 torpedo tubes for Mk 46 Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) torpedoes.

According to Janes' IDEAS2004 interview with former Pakistan Navy Chief ex-Admiral Karimullah at least 4 additional new-built frigates will be acquired by the navy. The new frigate will be larger and superior to the F-22P; it will likely have a better air defence system and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capability; and use more advanced sensors, radar and electronics. Kanwa recently reported that the Pakistan Navy has shown recent interest in the Chinese Type 054 frigate. Another potential option could be the TKMS MEKO A-200 frigate.

Corvettes & Missile Boats

A hover boat
A hover boat

In a recent interview with the Pakistan Naval Chief of Staff, Admiral Tahir, the Pakistan Navy is considering the purchase of at least four new corvettes; expected displacement range is 1,500 tons to 2000+ tons. According to the Admiral these would also be built in Pakistan alongside the F-22P frigate and three new SSK attack submarines in the Karachi Shipyard. The Navy reportedly expressed interest in the Turkish Milgem corvette project. According to Turkish Press, negotiations for a minimum of four Milgem-class corvettes would begin in April 2007. The deal reportedly involves one Milgem being built in Turkey while the remainder in Pakistan. DCN of France is pitching the Gowind 120 corvette for the PN's requirement, and TKMS of Germany may offer the MEKO A-100.

The Pakistan Navy operates four Jalalat class 200 ton missile boats each armed with 4 Chinese C-802 surface-to-surface missiles. The Jalalat II Class were locally produced using a German design. In November 2006 the Pakistan Navy ordered two MRTP-33 missile boats from Turkey - the first to be delivered in 2008. The Navy has an overall requirement of eight MRTP-33s.

Aviation

The Pakistan Navy Aviation wing is quite small compared to the Pakistan Army Aviation, but despite its size it has a potent fleet which is continuously advancing in offensive and defensive warfare. Currently the PN Aviation Force consists of:

  • 3 Westland Lynx Anti-Ship/Anti-Submarine/Transport Helicopters
  • 6 Westland Sea King Mk45 Transport Helicopters
  • 8 Aerospatiale SA-319B Alouette III Transport/Anti-Ship Helicopters
  • 4 Lockheed P-3C Orion Maritime Surveillance/Anti-Submarine Warfare Aircraft/Airborne Early Warning (6 more to be delivered)
  • 5 Fokker F27-200 Maritime Surveillance Aircraft
  • 2-3 Breguet Atlantique I Maritime Surveillance/Anti-Submarine Warfare Aircraft.
  • 12+ Dassault Mirage 5 Anti-Ship Fighter Aircraft (Operated by the Pakistan Air Force)

The Pakistan Navy ordered six (6) Chinese Z-9EC Anti-Ship/Anti-Submarine/Transport Helicopters. Eight (8) P-3C Orion Surveillance/Anti-Submarine Warfare Aircraft were also ordered (and two delivered) to replace the ageing Fokker and Atlantique aircraft. In December 2006 the U.S State Department notified U.S Congress about a possible sale of another three P-3 Orions to the Pakistan Navy, but equipped with the Hawkeye 2000 AEW&C system.

Future acquisitions include:

  • At least 6 new helicopters to replace the Westland Seaking Mk45.
  • At least 8 new helicopters to replace the Aerospatiale SA-319B Alouette III
  • Induction of one fighter squadron by 2009.

Others

The Pakistan Navy has one Poolster Class AOR and one Fuqing Class AOR auxiliary tankers as well as two Gwadar class coastal tankers. Three Eridan Class mine hunters are also in service with the PN; plans for additional mine hunters are underway.

The Navy plans to procure a single replenishment tanker as well as up to two mine countermeasure vessels.

Conclusion

Pakistan has always relied on stealth and prides itself on its submarines. However, the financial crunch and the Pressler Amendment has hindered its ability to match the growing military capability of its neighbour, India. Since the late 1990s, Pakistan stepped up its efforts to modernize its navy's surface, submerged, and aerial fleet, as well as weapons inventory of various missiles, torpedoes, etc.

1 comment:

Khurram said...

Could you make the window a little smaller, thus making it really impossible to read?

Clearly your designer, FOGYSENSE, hasn't the foggiest idea.