Monday, November 12, 2007

Training Institutions

Training Institutions

Pakistan Navy has an academy of its own called the Pakistan Naval Academy (also known as PNS RAHBAR), it is the home of initial training of officers of Pakistan Navy. The academy also has provided basic training to the officers of Allied Navies. The Chief of Naval Staff of Qatar Emiri Navy and many high ranking officers of Royal Saudi Navy as well as other navies in the Gulf were graduates of the PNA. The academy is a full fledged training institution catering to the needs to Pakistani junior Naval officers. The Navy also has its own navy war college called the Pakistan Navy War College [3] specializing in imparting Naval Warfare techniques to officers of the Pakistan marine forces.

Other worthwhile training institutions are:

PNS Bahadur: conducts specialist courses.

PNS Himalaya: for basic training of sailors.

PNS Karsaz: for technical training of sailors.

PNS Jauhar: for technical training of officers.

PNS Jauhar has been absorbed by the National University of Sciences and Technology as Pakistan Navy Engineering College, where officers and civilian students are offered degrees in Electrical, Mechanical and Electronics Engineering.

Special Forces

Main article: Special Services Group Navy

Special Service Group Navy (SSGN) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Navy. It is an elite special operations force similar to the Royal Navy's Special Boat Service and United States Navy SEALS. Official numbers place the strength between 700 to 1,000, in 1 Company; however the actual strength is classified.

The fleet

PNS Shahjahan & PNS Tippu Sultan with USS Rueben James during Exercise Inspired Siren in 2002.
PNS Shahjahan & PNS Tippu Sultan with USS Rueben James during Exercise Inspired Siren in 2002.
PNS Shahjahan
PNS Shahjahan

Classification of ships with respect to their classes[7][8][9] [10]

  • 6 Ex-UK Type 21 Frigates
    • F181 Tariq 1975/93 Ex-Ambuscade
    • F182 Babur 1974/93 Ex-Amazon
    • F183 Khaibar 1976/94 Ex-Arrow
    • F184 Badr 1977/94 Ex-Alacrity
    • F185 Shah Jehan 1977/94 Ex-Active
    • F186 Tippu Sultan 1978/94 Ex-Onslow
  • 3 French Eridan Class Mine Hunter vessels
    • M166 Munsif 1989/95 Ex-Sagittaire
    • M167 Muhafiz 1996
    • M168 Mahmood 1997
  • 4+ Jalalat Class Missile Boats
    • P1023 Jurrat 2006
    • P1028 Quwwat 2006
    • P1022 Jalalat 1997
    • P1024 Shujaat 1999
    • P1029 ? ?
    • P1030 ? ?
  • ? Sabqat (Huangfeng) Class Missile Boats - (Possibly Inactive)
    • P1025 Azmat 1984
    • P1026 Deshat 1984
    • P1027 Himmat 1984
  • ? Hegu Class Missile Boats - (Possibly Inactive)
    • P1021 Haibat 1981
  • 1 Larkana Class Patrol GunBoat
    • P157 Larkana 1994
  • 2 Shanghai II Class Patrol GunBoats
    • P145 Pishin 1972
    • P149 Bahawalpur 1976
  • 1 Town Class Patrol GunBoat - (Possibly Inactive)
    • P140 Rajshahi 1966
  • 2 MRTP 15 Fast Patrol Boats
    • P01 ? 2004
    • P02 ? 2004
  • 1 Fuqing Class AOR
    • A47 Nasr 1987
  • 1 Poolster Class AOR
    • A20 Moawin 1964/94 Ex-Poolster
  • 2 Coastal Tankers
    • A49 Gwadar 1984
    • A21 Kalmat 1991
  • 4 Griffon Ambhibious Assault Ships
  • 1 Hydrographic Survey Vessel, SV Behr Paima
    • -- Behr Paima 1982
  • 1 Ex-UK Leander Class Training vessel[11]
    • F262 Zulfiquar 1972/88 Ex-Apollo


A total of 5 active diesel electric submarines plus 3 midget submarines, MG110 are in the Naval inventory.[12] These include:

Daphne class submarine Ghazi (S-134)
Daphne class submarine Ghazi (S-134)
  • 3 Agosta-90B class (PNS/M Khalid, PNS/M Saad & PNS/M Hamza)
  • 2 Agosta 70 class (PNS/M Hashmat & PNS/M Hurmat)
  • 4 (Decommissioned) Daphne class (PNS/M Hangor, PNS/M Ghazi 2, PNS/M Mangro & PNS/M Shushuk)

All of the Pakistani SSKs have been equipped with AshMs which can be fired while submerged. The 3 Khalid class boats are capable of firing Exocet AshM, while the older Agostas and Daphnes have been equipped with US Harpoon AshMs. PNS/M Hamza (third Agosta-90B) is equipped with the MESMA Air Independent Propulsion system, PNS/M Khalid and PNS/M Saad will be upgraded with the same MESMA AIP system in the near future. The Pakistan Navy also plans to integrate the Boeing Harpoon Block II on to its Agosta-90Bs; and currently the Agosta-90Bs are capable of firing Blackshark torpedoes.

In mid-2006 the Pakistan Navy announced its requirement of three new SSK attack submarines to replace the two Agosta-70 submarines and rebuild its fleet - after retiring the 4 Daphne Class. French naval firm DCN offered its latest export design - the Marlin SSK - which is based off the Scorpene SSK, but also uses technology from the Barracuda nuclear attack submarine. The German firm HDW offered the U-214 SSK. The News, a Pakistani newspaper, has reported that PN officials have entered into negotiations with Germany for the possible acquisition of U-214 submarines. As of April 2007 the PN announced that it will procure four new submarines to replace the decommissioned Daphne Class; the TKMS U214 and DCN Marlin as well as Scorpene are the main contenders.

Pakistan is also seeking to enhance its strategic strike capability by developing naval variants of the Babur land attack cruise missile (LACM). The Babur LACM has a range of 700 km and is capable of using both conventional and nuclear warheads. Future developments of LACM include capability of being launched from submarines, surface combatants and aircraft.


PNS Badr (F184) steams along side USS Tarawa (LHA-1) in November of 2005
PNS Badr (F184) steams along side USS Tarawa (LHA-1) in November of 2005

The Navy's six frigates include six ex-British Amazon class (PNS Babur) ships. These are expected to retire between 2010 and 2020.

In 2005 Pakistan ordered four F-22P light frigates from China in a deal worth $600mn. The first is expected to be commissioned 2009[4] and the remainder by 2013. One of the F-22Ps will be built in the Karachi Shipyard. The F-22P is an improved version of the Type 053H3 Jiangwei II class light frigate, it has a displacement of at least 2500 tons. The first F-22P will be called PNS Zulfiqar, and thus become the Zulfiqar Class.

According to Janes the Pakistan Navy is expected to place a formal request to the U.S for six Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates to augment its surface fleet. These may replace the Type-21s and act as stop-gaps until new-built frigates and corvettes are commissioned. The weapons and systems on the PN FFG-7 have not yet been disclosed, but they could include the Mk 41 Vertical Launch System for the Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) as well as Mk 32 torpedo tubes for Mk 46 Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) torpedoes.

According to Janes' IDEAS2004 interview with former Pakistan Navy Chief ex-Admiral Karimullah at least 4 additional new-built frigates will be acquired by the navy. The new frigate will be larger and superior to the F-22P; it will likely have a better air defence system and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capability; and use more advanced sensors, radar and electronics. Kanwa recently reported that the Pakistan Navy has shown recent interest in the Chinese Type 054 frigate. Another potential option could be the TKMS MEKO A-200 frigate.

Corvettes & Missile Boats

A hover boat
A hover boat

In a recent interview with the Pakistan Naval Chief of Staff, Admiral Tahir, the Pakistan Navy is considering the purchase of at least four new corvettes; expected displacement range is 1,500 tons to 2000+ tons. According to the Admiral these would also be built in Pakistan alongside the F-22P frigate and three new SSK attack submarines in the Karachi Shipyard. The Navy reportedly expressed interest in the Turkish Milgem corvette project. According to Turkish Press, negotiations for a minimum of four Milgem-class corvettes would begin in April 2007. The deal reportedly involves one Milgem being built in Turkey while the remainder in Pakistan. DCN of France is pitching the Gowind 120 corvette for the PN's requirement, and TKMS of Germany may offer the MEKO A-100.

The Pakistan Navy operates four Jalalat class 200 ton missile boats each armed with 4 Chinese C-802 surface-to-surface missiles. The Jalalat II Class were locally produced using a German design. In November 2006 the Pakistan Navy ordered two MRTP-33 missile boats from Turkey - the first to be delivered in 2008. The Navy has an overall requirement of eight MRTP-33s.


The Pakistan Navy Aviation wing is quite small compared to the Pakistan Army Aviation, but despite its size it has a potent fleet which is continuously advancing in offensive and defensive warfare. Currently the PN Aviation Force consists of:

  • 3 Westland Lynx Anti-Ship/Anti-Submarine/Transport Helicopters
  • 6 Westland Sea King Mk45 Transport Helicopters
  • 8 Aerospatiale SA-319B Alouette III Transport/Anti-Ship Helicopters
  • 4 Lockheed P-3C Orion Maritime Surveillance/Anti-Submarine Warfare Aircraft/Airborne Early Warning (6 more to be delivered)
  • 5 Fokker F27-200 Maritime Surveillance Aircraft
  • 2-3 Breguet Atlantique I Maritime Surveillance/Anti-Submarine Warfare Aircraft.
  • 12+ Dassault Mirage 5 Anti-Ship Fighter Aircraft (Operated by the Pakistan Air Force)

The Pakistan Navy ordered six (6) Chinese Z-9EC Anti-Ship/Anti-Submarine/Transport Helicopters. Eight (8) P-3C Orion Surveillance/Anti-Submarine Warfare Aircraft were also ordered (and two delivered) to replace the ageing Fokker and Atlantique aircraft. In December 2006 the U.S State Department notified U.S Congress about a possible sale of another three P-3 Orions to the Pakistan Navy, but equipped with the Hawkeye 2000 AEW&C system.

Future acquisitions include:

  • At least 6 new helicopters to replace the Westland Seaking Mk45.
  • At least 8 new helicopters to replace the Aerospatiale SA-319B Alouette III
  • Induction of one fighter squadron by 2009.


The Pakistan Navy has one Poolster Class AOR and one Fuqing Class AOR auxiliary tankers as well as two Gwadar class coastal tankers. Three Eridan Class mine hunters are also in service with the PN; plans for additional mine hunters are underway.

The Navy plans to procure a single replenishment tanker as well as up to two mine countermeasure vessels.


Pakistan has always relied on stealth and prides itself on its submarines. However, the financial crunch and the Pressler Amendment has hindered its ability to match the growing military capability of its neighbour, India. Since the late 1990s, Pakistan stepped up its efforts to modernize its navy's surface, submerged, and aerial fleet, as well as weapons inventory of various missiles, torpedoes, etc.


The Pakistan Navy has some 24,000 personnel. The force includes a small Naval Air Arm and the approximately 2,000 member paramilitary Maritime Security Agency, charged primarily with protecting Pakistan's exclusive economic zone(EEZ). The naval reserve consists of about 5,000 personnel. Included in this is the Naval arm of the Special Services Group, a marine commando unit stationed at Karachi. The SSG(N) as it is known is believed to number around 1,000 in troop strength. Pakistan Navy recently began inducting women for combat positions[2] apart from the existing administrative posts, becoming one of the few Islamic Republics to do so.

Naval General Staff

  • Admiral Muhammad Afzal Tahir NI(M) — Chief of Naval Staff)(present)
  • Vice Admiral Saleem Ahmed Meenaii - Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Consolidated)
  • Vice Admiral Noman Bashir — Commander of Pakistan Fleet
  • Rear Admiral Bakhtiar Mohsin — Commander Karachi.
  • Rear Admiral Mahmood Ahmed Khan — Commander of Coastal Areas
  • Rear Admiral Mohammed Shafi — Commander Logistics
  • Commodore Khalid Saeed — Commander of North Navy
  • Rear Admiral Shahid Iqbal — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Operations)
  • Rear Admiral Nayyar Iqbal — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Material)
  • Rear Admiral R U Khan — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Supply)
  • ? — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Projects)
  • ? — Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (Projects-II)


The supreme commander of the Navy is the Chief of the Naval Staff. Admiral Afzal Tahir NI(M)is the current Chief of the Navy.

The navy has five commands:

  • COMKAR - Naval headquarters and the only major base at Karachi. (COMmander KARachi)
  • COMPAK - The fleet; (COMmander PAKistan Fleet)
  • COMCOAST - COMmander COAST; The special command of SSG(N), Marines and Coastal stations (COMmader COAST) at Karachi, newly raised
  • COMLOG - The logistics; (COMmander LOGistics)
  • COMNOR - Naval installations in the north of Pakistan; (COMmander NORth)
  • COMNAV - COMmander Naval AViation

Other naval bases are Ormara, Pasni, Gwadar and Jiwani.


PN Officer Ranks
Rank Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Sub Lieutenant Midshipman
Uniform insignia

PN Sailor Ranks
Rank Master Chief Petty Officer Fleet Chief Petty Officer Chief Petty Officer Petty Officer Leading Seaman
Uniform insignia



The birth of the Royal Pakistan Navy came with the creation of Pakistan on 14 August 1947. The Armed Forces Reconstitution Committee (AFRC) divided the Royal Indian Navy between both countries India and Pakistan. The Pakistan Navy secured two sloops, two frigates, four minesweepers, two trawlers, four harbour launches and some 3580 personnel (180 officers and 3400 ratings) and given the high percentage of delta areas on the Pakistan coast the Navy was given a number of Harbour Defence Motor Launches. The Royal Pakistan Navy saw no action during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 as all the fighting was restricted to Kashmir.

In 1956 the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was proclaimed under the 1956 constitution. The prefix Royal was dropped and the service re-designated as Pakistan Navy short title PN. PN Jack and Pakistan flag replaced the Queen's colour and the white ensign respectively. The order of precedence of the three services changed from Navy, Army, Air force to Army, Navy, Air Force. In February 1956, the British government announced supplying of several major surface combatants to Pakistan. These Warships, a cruiser and four destroyers were purchased with funds made available under the US Military Assistance Program. The acquisition of a few additional warships that is two destroyers, eight coastal minesweepers and an oiler (between 1956-63) was the direct result of Pakistan's participation in the anti-Communist defence pacts of SEATO and CENTO.

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 the navy was involved in a conflict for the first time. Apart from carrying out a limited bombardment of the coastal town of Dwaraka - codenamed Operation Dwarka, the navy's submarine PNS Ghazi was deployed against Indian Navy's western fleet at Bombay (Mumbai) port. [1]

The Navy's role changed in Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 when the military was caught in the thick of the battle. With East Pakistan having been surrounded on all three sides by the Indian Army, the Navy was under immense pressure to protect the coast. Despite the isolated incident, the sinking of an Indian frigate INS Khukri by the submarine PNS Hangor, the Navy was largely overrun. The major threat from the much dreaded PNS Ghazi - the only long range submarine - was nullified when it was sunk in the Bay of Bengal by INS Vikrant, thus enabling an easy blockade on East Pakistan.[1] The damage inflicted by both Indian Navy and Indian Air Force on Pakistan Navy stood at 7 Gunboats, one submarine, 1minesweeper, 2 Destroyers, 3 patrol crafts belonging to the coast guard, 18 Cargo, supply and communication vessels, with some more crafts damaged, and Large scale destruction inflicted on the naval base and Docks in the coastal town of Karachi. 3 merchant navy ships Anwar Baksh, Pasni, Madhumathi[2] and ten smaller vessels were captured.[3] The total number of personnel losses came to about 1900 and 1413 servicemen were captured by Indian forces in Dhaka(Official Pakistan losses).[4] In contrast the Indian Navy lost 212 personnel, a frigate (another frigate damaged) and a naval plane Breguet Alizé to the Pakistan Air Force (PAF).[4] According to one Pakistan scholar, Tariq Ali, Pakistan Navy lost a third of its force in the war.[5] The primary reason for this loss has been attributed to the central command's failure in defining a role for the Navy - or the military in general, in East Pakistan. Since then the Navy has sought to improve the structure and fleet by putting special emphasis on sub-surface warfare capability as it allows for the most efficient way to deny the control of Pakistani sea lanes to the adversary.

PNS Nazim which previously took part in the Vietnam and Korean wars with the USN
PNS Nazim which previously took part in the Vietnam and Korean wars with the USN

Following the breakup of Pakistan, the Navy sought to diversify its purchases instead of depending solely on the US, which had placed an arms embargo on both India and Pakistan. It sought more vessels from France and China. The Pakistan Navy thus became the first navy in South Asia to acquire land based missile capable long range reconnaissance aircraft.[6] During the 1980s the Pakistan Navy enjoyed un-preceded growth. It doubled its surface fleet from 8 to 16 surface combatants in 1989. In 1982, the Reagan administration approved US$ 3.2 billions military and economic aid to Pakistan. Pakistan acquired eight Brooke and Garcia-class frigates from US Navy on a five year lease in 1988. A depot for repairs, EX-USS HECTOR followed the lease of these ships in April 1989. However after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989 US President George Bush was advised to no longer certify that Pakistan was not involved in the development of nuclear weapons and the Pressler’s Amendment was invoked on 1 October 1990. The lease of the first Brooke class frigate expired in March 1993, the remaining in early 1994. This seriously impaired the Pakistan Navy, which was composed almost entirely of former US origin ships. Pakistan began to concentrate on self-reliance for its defense production.

The Atlantique Incident was a major international incident on 10 August 1999 where a Pakistan Navy plane (Breguet Atlantic) with 16 on board was shot down in the border area of the Kutch region when it was well within Pakistani Airspace by Indian Air Force jets. It resulted in escalated tensions between the two neighboring countries.

The Navy has been involved in some peacetime operations, most notably during the tsunami tragedy that struck on December 26, 2004. Pakistan sent vessels to Sri Lanka and the Maldives to help in rescue and relief work.

Pakistan Navy

Pakistan Navy

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Pakistan Navy jack
Pakistan Navy jack
Military of Pakistan

Joint Services Parade in 2005
Service branches Pakistan Army

Pakistan Air Force
Pakistan Navy
Pakistan Coast Guard
Pakistan Paramilitary Forces
Pakistan Strategic Nuclear Command

Headquarters Rawalpindi
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Tariq Majid
Secretary of Defense Kamran Rasool
Chief of Army Staff General Pervez Musharraf
Military age 16-49 years old [13]
Available for
military service
39,028,014 males, age 16-49 (2007 est.),
36,779,584 females, age 16-49 (2007 est.)
Fit for
military service
29,428,747 males, age 16-49 (2007 est.),
28,391,887 females, age 16-49 (2007 est.)
Reaching military
age annually
1,969,055 males (2007 est.),
1,849,254 females (2007 est.)
Active personnel 619,000 (ranked 7th)
Reserve personnel 528,500
Budget $4.26 billion (ranked 39th)
Percent of GDP 4.5 (2006 est.)
Related articles
History Military history of Pakistan
UN Peacekeeping missions
Weapons of mass destruction
Ranks Awards and decorations of the Pakistan military

Pakistan Navy (Urdu: پاک بحریہ) is the naval wing of the Pakistan military. Though not as significant as their other military divisions, it does play a vital role given the regional rivalry of Pakistan with India. September 8 is the National Navy day of Pakistan.